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I’,m afraid you’re going to have to wait a while for the midnight sun. I didn’t realise that this was a created playlist. Make yourself a cup of coffee, loosen your tie and prepare for a round trip of Europe 😉

Movie found on travelfilmarchive on Youtube

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a12056_Standard Superior_01

History

In the first half of 1932, Wilhelm Gutbrod, the President of the Standard Fahrzeugfabrik, came into contact with German engineer Josef Ganz. Ganz had been working on a small car design since the early 1920s and had so far built two prototypes, one for Ardie in 1930 and one for Adler in 1931, called the Maikäfer (May Beetle). After a demonstration with the Maikäfer by Ganz, Gutbrod was most interested to build a small car according to this design. The Standard Fahrzeugfabrik then purchased a license from Ganz to develop and build a small car according to his design. The prototype of this new model, which was to be called Standard Superior, was finished in 1932. It featured a tubular chassis, a mid-mounted engine, and independent wheel suspension with swing-axles at the rear.

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Models

The first production model of the Standard Superior was introduced at the IAMA (Internationale Automobil- und Motorradausstellung) in Berlin in February 1933. It had a transverse 396cc, two-cylinder, two-stroke engine mounted in front of the rear axle. Because of some criticism to the body design, not in the least by Josef Ganz in Motor-Kritik, it was followed in April 1933 by a slightly altered model.

In November 1933 the Standard Fahrzeugfabrik introduced yet another new and improved model for 1934, which was slightly longer with one additional window on each side and had a small seat for children or as luggage space in the back. This car was advertised as the German "Volkswagen" (a term that means, literally, "people’s car" in German.

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The Volkswagen Beetle connection

With the Ardie-Ganz, Adler Maikäfer and Standard Superior cars, as well as his progressive writings and promotion of the concept of a Volkswagen (people’s car) in Motor-Kritik magazine since the 1920s, Josef Ganz is claimed by some to have had input into the Volkswagen Beetle. These cars had some of features of the later Volkswagen Beetle, such as the tubular chassis, rear-mounted engine and independent wheel suspension with swing axles. While the Volkswagen Beetle was produced in its millions after World War Two, the name of Josef Ganz was largely forgotten. In 2004, Dutch journalist Paul Schilperoord started researching the life and work of Josef Ganz, and in 2011 he published The Extraordinary Life of Josef Ganz: The Jewish Engineer Behind Hitler’s Volkswagen.

Text from Wikipedia

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbROUGH CLASSIFICATION OF SOME OF THE MOST POPULAR SWISS RESORTS

SUMMER MOUNTAIN RESORTS: (For those opening in Winter, see Winter Sports Resorts) :Adelboden, Airolo, Anderrn rtt Arolla, Arosa Arveyes, Axenfels, Ballaigues, Beatenberg, Berisal, Binn, Bricolla, Btirgenstock, Caux, Celerina, Charnper y, Champex, Chateau-d’Oex, Chesieres, Col des Plariches, Centers, Corbeyrier, Crans-sur-Sierre, Davos, Diablerets, Eggishom, Engelberg, Etivaz (Bains d’), Evolena, Fafleralp, Ferpecle, Fiesch, Finhaut, Forclaz, Frutigen, Gletsch, Griesalp, Grimentz, Grindelwald, Gruben-Meiden, Gryon, Gstaad, Guttannen, Gsteig, Innertkirchen, Interlaken, Kandersteg, Klosters, Lauterbrunnen, La Fouly, La Sage, Lenk, Lenzerheide, Les Hauderes, Les Plans s. Bex, Les Rasses, Le Sepey, Leysin (climatic), Maloja, Mayens de Sion, Meiringen, Montana, Muhlen, Monte Generoso, Morschach, Murren, Oeschenen-See, Pontresina, Reuti, Riederalp, Riederfurka, Riffelalp, Rossinieres, Saanen, Saanenrnoser, Saas-Fee , Saas-Grund, Sarnaden, San Bernardino, Savognino, Scheidegg, Seelisberg, Simplon-Kulm, Spliigen, Ste-Croix, St-Mcritz, Taes’ch, Tiefenkastel, Val Ferret, Val d’Illiez, Villars, Weiss horn, Wengen, Wengernalp, Wiesen, Zermatt, Zernez, Zuoz.

RESORTS on or near the following LAKES: Lake of Geneva (Lac Leman), see Caux, Chexbres, Coppet, Evian-Ies-Bains (France), Geneva, Lausanne- Ouchy, Montreux with Clarens and Territet, Nyon, St. Cergue, Vevey, Villeneuve. Lake Lucerne, see Axenfels, Brunnen, Burgenstock, Lucerne, Morschach, Lake Lugano , see Lugano, Cademario, Monte Generoso, Monte Salvatore, Sonvico. Lake Maggiore, see Locarno, Ascona …. and Section ITALY. Lakes of Neuchatel and Bienne, see Neuchatel, Bienne, Cressier, Neuveville, St. Blaise, Yverdon. Lakes of Thoune and Brienz, see Interlaken, Beatenberg, Gunten, Hilterfingen, Oberhofen, Spiez, Thoune. Lake of Zurich, see Zurich. Mountain Lakes, see Arosa, Champex, Crans, Davos, Fafleralp, Le Prese, Klosters, Maloja, Montana, Piora, San Bernardino, St. Moritz.

SPRING, AUTUMN and MID-CLIMATIC RESORTS: PRACTICALLY ALL THE LOWER LAKE DISTRICTS (see above), as well as such places as Ballaigues, Bex-les-Bains, Henniez (Bains d’), Le Prese, Meiringen, Ragaz, Sierre and some of the lower mountain resorts. (For the dates of opening of the latter, see individual insertions.)

WINTER SPORT RESORTS: Adelboden, Andermatt, Arosa, Arveyes, Baltatgues , Beatenberg, Caux, Celerina, Champery, Champex, Chateau-d ‘Oex, Ohesteres , Crans-sur-Sierre, Davos, Diablerets, Engelberg, Grindelwald, Gryon, Griesalp, Gstaad, Gsteig, Jaunpass, Julier Route, Jungfraujoch, Kandersteg, Klosrers ;’ Lenk , Lenzerheide, Le Sepey, Les Rasses, Leysin, Maloja, Montana, Montreux (by mountain railways), Murren, Pontresina, Reuti, Roasinieres , Saanen, Saanenmoser, Samaden, San Bernardino, Splugen , Ste. Croix, St. MOritz, Surlej, Vevey (by mountain railways), Villars, Wengen, Wiesen, Zermatt, Zuoz. – Summer ski-ing on the Jungfraujoch.


SWITZERLAND FOR THE FOREIGN VISITOR

Switzerland, the" Inexhaustible ". is no longer looked upon as a mere tourist district. the World is recognizing more and more the advantages of its health giving properties and educational facilities,

and, now that the League of Nations has" come to stay", it may even be regarded as the centre of International Politics.

The days when people had time to spare are past, and with them the days when EngIish families could afford to put in a few months (sometimes even a few years) of leisurely existence on the Continent , Money is more plentiful, but time scarcer now-a-days. This has affected the Swiss Tourist World to acertain extent though the main Summer mountain resorts and Winter Sport centres are still crowded during the height of their respective seasons. It is for this reason that from time to time some “mumbling and grumbling” regarding prices is heard. If only people would realize how comparatively cheaply they could live when the rush is over and what delightful accommodation would then be offered them for the same terms as a small room during the season, no one except those obliged to, would travel in the full season, excepting, of course in the more remote and less patronized places. Except for actual mountaineering, May and June, when the Alpine Flora is at its best, and Autumn with its glorious colouring, are preferable in any but the highest Mountain resorts. On the lakes and in the lower regions it is during these months that the meadows and orchards offer such a wonderful sight, whilst for Winter Sports, snow conditions from the middle of January to the end of February are usually at their best and the hours of sunshine longer.

From a TOURIST point of view, Switzerland consists of several distinct districts, which can be roughly classified as follows:

THE BERNESE OBERLAND Best reached from Berne via the Lake of Thoune, includes:

THE LAKE RESORTS of Thoune, Hllterflngen , Oberhofen, Gunten and Spiez, with Beatenberg above the Lake;

THE KANDER VALLEY (Berne-Loetschberg-Simplon Railway) leaving from Spiez to Kandersteg, in which lie the stations of Pruttgen (junction for the car service to Adelboden), Reichenbach (junction for Griesalp) ; . The famous excursion centre of Interlaken and the many beautiful Summer and Winter mountain resorts at the foot of the Jungfrau Group (Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Murren, Scheldegg , Wengen, Wengernalp) ; The Jungfrau Railway, which carries passengers up to an altitude of 11,400 feet into a world of ice and snow, is unique; The Bernese Oberland extends beyond Lake Brienz to Melrfngen at the foot of the Grimsel, whence the railway continues via Brünig (junction for Hohfluh and Reuti) to Lucerne.

THE GRISONS (Canton of Graubünden), starting at Coire, the Capital, includes the famous high mountain resorts of Arosa, Davos , Klosters, Lenzerheide, Pontresfna , and the Engadine with. Samaden, St. Moritz and Maloja. Sunshine and snow conditions in these higher places can be relied upon m Winter, whilst in Summer the wonderfully bracing air and the sun on the high altItudes is unsurpassed in health-giving properties. The scenery with its white capped mountains, dark pine forests and turquoise blue lakes is beautiful in all parts. The Grisons extends, passing Maloja, towards the Italian Lake DistrIct ; passing the famous baths of Tarasp-Schuls to the Austrian Tyrol; by the Bernma Railway passing Pontresma and Le Prese to Italy, and via Zernez over the Ofen Pass (for Merano in the Alto-Adige). It includes the Albula Pass (by train or car) and the beautiful Car Routes over the Julier, Fluela, Splugen and San Bernardmo Passes.

THE JURA round about the Lakes of Neuchatel and Bienneincludes the Baths of Yverdon and the heights above, where several charming Summer and Winter resorts (Ste. Croix-Ies Rasses , etc.) are dotted amongst the beautiful forests. Ballalgues , being just above Vallorbe, is the nearest Swiss Summer and Winter resort to Paris and a delightful motoring centre. Neuchatel is charmingly situated on Its own Lake. Cressier and St. Blaise are within a short distance of Neuchatel ; Neuveville and Bienne (Biel) (a centre of the watchmaking industry) lie on the northern shore of the Lake of Bienne. Fribourg (Berne-Lausanne main line) and Morat (Murten) (Berne-Lausanne car route) are extremely picturesque and historically interesting old towns. Henniez-Ies-Bains (mineral springs) and Marnand are on the mam Berne-Lausanne car route.

THE LAKE OF GENEVA (Lac Leman) forms the frontier between France and Switzerland, extending from Villeneuve in the Rhone Valley to Geneva, with Montreux, Vevey, Lausanne, Nyon, Coppet, etc. on the Swiss side. Large, comfortable steamers link up all towns and villages on the Lake, whilst railways, trams, funiculars, and car services run from all places to the many beautiful resorts on the heights, famous in Spring for their Flora, in Autumn for the colouring of their wooded slopes, and several of them for Winter sports. This is the most" residential" district of Switzerland for foreigners, partly owing to Its mild climate, partly to its facilities for international travel, and greatly owning to its educational advantages.

GENEVA, now a great international centre, has many attractions. The neighbourhood includes Coppet, Divonne-Ies-Bains (France), Monnetier (France), Nyon, St. Cer gue , and the numerous charming resorts just over the frontier in Savoy.

THE LAKE OF LUCERNE (Vierwaldstattersee) extends from the famous tourist centre of Lucerne, (with Burgenstock and Sonnenberg on the heights above), between the Rigi, Pilatus and other mountains, towards the Briinig Pass; towards the well-known mountain resort of Engelberg, and, passing Seeliberg, Schoneck and other places on its slopes and shores, is rejoined at Brunnen by the Gotthard Railway which leaves it at Fluelen. Morschach and Axenfels lie just above Brunnen. This lake is considered by many to be the most beautiful of Swiss Lakes. In Spring and early Summer, when the orchards are in blossom, this can scarcely be disputed. The Autumn foliage is also very beautiful. -Comfortablesteamers, railway and car services link up all places.

THE PAYS D’ENHAUT lies between the picturesque old town of Gruyeres, the hills North of Lake Geneva and the Bernese Oberland, terminating at Zweisimmen, the junction for Lake Thoune and Lenk. It consists mainly of pasture land, wooded hills and rocky summits, interspersed with picturesque and prosperous villages, including the well-known Summer and Winter resorts of Cha teau-d ‘Oex, Rossfniere , Etivaz (Bains d ‘), a few miles from Cha teauvd”Dex or Le Sepey , Gstaad, Gsteig, Saanenand Saanenmoser and the Jaunpass with the picturesque village of Charmey. Beyond Zweisimrneri lie the Baths of Weissenburg, and at Oey-Diemtigen a road branches off to Grimmialp.

THE RHONE VALLEY, though the river has its source in the beautiful Rhone Glacier at Gletsch, is generally referred to as the district extending from Brigue (junction of the Simplon, Lotschberg and Furka Lines) to Lake Geneva. From a tourist point of view, with the exception of Sion and Sierre, it acts chiefly as the starting point for the numerous mountain resorts on the heights and in its lateral valleys. Commencing from the Lake.

AIGLE for Champery (via Montheyand Val d’I1liez) ; for Corbeyrier ; for Leystn (by funicular or car) ; for Le Sepey and Diablerets and via the Col des Mosses to Chateau-dOex ;

BEX-LES-BAINS for Villars (with Arveyes and Chesteres), Gryon, Les Plans;

MARTIGNY for Lac Champex, the Great St. Bernard, the Val Ferret (La Fouly), Col des Planches, Fionna y, the road to Chamonix via Forclaz and Trient, and the Martigny-Chamonix Electric Railway via Finhaut .

SION for Mayens de Sion, Evolena, La Sage, Les Hauderes , Arolla, Ferpecle and Bricolla ; SIERRE for Montana and Crans, Grimentz, St. Luc, the Weisshorn Hotel and the Val d’Anniviers generally;

TOURTEMAGNE for Gruben-Meiden .

VIRGE for the famous Summer and Winter mountain resort of Zermatt and the Zermatt Valley resorts (Randa, Taesch, etc.), and via Stalden for Saas-Fee and Saas-Grund ;

BRIGUE for the Furka Railway and Route, which includes Fiesch (starting point for the Eggfshorn mountain hotel and Binn) and Gletsch at the foot of the Rhone Glacier and the Grimsel Pass ; For the Loetschberg Railway to Berne, passing the stations of Goppenstein (for Fafleralp), Kandersteg, Fruttgen (for Adelboden), Spiez and Thoune ; For the Simplon Railway and car route to Domodossola (Italy) passing Berisal and the Hotel Bellevue at the summit of the Simplon Pass. Cars can be shipped through the Loetschberg and Simplon tunnels.

THE ST. GOTTHARD ROUTE (Bale-Milan Express) runs from the Lake of Lucerne southwards through beautiful mountain scenery to Lugano , Goeschenen (junction for Andermatt on the Furka-Oberalp Railway), Airolo and Bellinzona (for Locarno and Mesocco). The Car route over the Pass is open from Spring to Autumn. Cars are shipped through the tunnel at very moderate rates.

THE SWISS-ITALIAN LAKES include the Lake of Lugano and the Lago Maggiore, Locarno with Orselina and Ascona being the only resorts on the latter in Swiss territory. Lugano is a large tourist resort and the starting point of several beautiful excursions by mountain railways, steamer or car. Cademario and Sonvico lie on the heights above Lugano. Locarno, rendered famous through the Conference, is a mild climatic resort, the starting point for Lake excursions and the beautiful Centovalli Rail wa y to Domodossola and the Simplon, and for the Val Maggia Line to Bignasco. In early Spring the mimosa trees, camelias and other Southern vegetation add greatly to the charm of these Tessinese resorts.

Amongst WATERING PLACES, Ragaz , between Zurich and Coire, Tarasp-Schuls-Vulpera in the lower Engadine, Weissenburg on the M.O.B. line and Yverdon in the Jura are of the best known. The LEADING TOWNS are Basle, Berne, the Capital, Geneva, seat of the League of Nations, ‘Lausanne and Zurich. Each of these towns has an individual character and charm and is historically interesting. (For picturesque towns, see" For Sightseers ", Part I). The Railways of Switzerland are almost entirely run by electricity.

The "POSTES ALPESTRES" (public motorcar services) are most excellently organised and greatly facilitate travelling on the old diligence routes and in out of-the-way places.

The Principality of LIECHTENSTEIN, adjoining the Eastern Frontier of Switzerland, with its picturesquely situated Capital, VADUZ, is well worth visiting, either by train or car.

This post is the last of the “Holidays in The thirties” series so I’ll see if I cant find something else to build a new Monday series on. As I’m interested in just about anything I think you may see a new series next Monday –Ted

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Sweden

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT– A constitutional monarchy on a democratic basis. The legislature is the Riksdag consisting of two Houses. The first Chamber has 150 members who are elected in certain large towns by indirect election and elsewhere by County Councils for 8 years. The country is divided into 8 groups of electoral areas, Cine of which elects new members each year. The second chamber of 230 members is elected by universal suffrage of both sexes over 24. Much of the parliamentary work is done by committees consisting of members from both Houses.

 

HEAD OF STATE: King Gustav V.
Area: 448,460 km2.
Capital: Stockholm. (Population about half a million).
Currency: 1 krona = 100 öre.
Population: About 6 millions.
Density: 15 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system.

To the tourist, Sweden offers beautiful scenery, vast forests, bathing, yachting, excellent fishing and shooting. Stockholm, the "Venice of the North ", is numbered amongst the most beautiful cities of Europe.

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Norway

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – A constitutional monarchy. The King acts through his Council of State, who are nominated by him. This Council in reality depends on the popular Assembly. The Storting (15O members) is elected every 3 years by universal suffrage of both sexes over 23 on the principle of proportional representation, The Storting elect a quarter of their number who constitute the Lagsting, the remaining three-quarters forming the Odelsting. All legislation is proposed by the Odelsting, and, if accepted, is sent to the Lagsting, which either rejects or approves. In case of repeated rejection by the Lagsting the two Houses meet in joint sitting as the Storting, where a two-thirds majority is required to pass a Bill.

HEAD OF STATE: King Haakon VII.
Area: 323,793 km2.
Capital: Oslo. Population over 250 thousand.
Currency: Kroner and øre. 1kr = 100 øre.
Language: Norwegian.
Population: 2 ½ to 3 million.
Density: 9 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal.

"TOURIST" NORWAY

Nowhere in the World can the traveller find greater restfulness (without comparative isolation) than in Norway, always provided that he avoids the tourist centres during their busy season, viz. from the middle of June to the end of August. Even then, real tranquillity can always be obtained by slightly diverging from the regular tourist track and by avoiding the Midnight Sun Mania. A sojourn at any time in one of the out-of-the-way Fjord-Resorts or Inland Hotels is perhaps the most restful and inexpensive of all holidays to be had within easy reach of England.

The unique mixture of land and water caused by the beautiful fjords penetrating in every direction into the very heart of the country, prevents much railway work, so that nearly all travelling is done by water. The regular Norwegian steamers are quieter than the large foreign boats and are very comfortable, the smaller ones being specially recommended, as they alone ‘skirt the coast through the narrow passages and smooth water, where larger vessels cannot go. This inner coast and fjord scenery is unlike that in any other country and offers a variety that never palls. During the Summer months car services connect the more important Fjord termini.

The state Railway between Oslo and Bergen penetrates some of the finest inland scenery, rising to an altitude of 4000 feet, the railway to Trondhjem stops at all places of interest, and the line through the beautiful Gudbransdal now extends beyond Domaas, rejoining the Trondhjem Line in the one direction and extending to Bjørli in the other.

In Winter, Oslo, Finse and other places on the Bergen-Oslo Railway and Gudbransdal districts are strongly recommended to those who love Winter Sports of all kinds. Skiing is of course the favorite sport in the country of its origin and can be carried on till towards the end of April.

During the Summer, fast, comfortable passenger steamers run northwards from Trondhjem through a chain of fjords and lakes to Bodø, Narvik (railway terminus), Tromsø and the North Cape. From Bodø onwards the midnight sun can be seen in all its glory during June and the first two weeks of July (longer of course in the North). Fishing and shooting is plentiful, furs can be purchased for comparatively little, and the animal life generally is interesting.

The best time for fishing is the latter half of June and the whole of July in the South, in the North also the first two weeks of August. The shooting season lasts from August 25th to March 14th with slight variations in the case of certain game.

The Summer season is June to September 15th approximately. For Climbing, July is best. The Winter season is February, March and April and extends into May in the mountains. Clothing should be light and warm with full protection against rain at all times of the year, For Motoring, Norway now offers every facility. Roads between main tourist centres are good, and those connecting up the smaller resorts have in late years undergone considerable improvement. The B. and N. Line Royal Mail Ltd. (Newcastle-on-Tyne-Bergen Route)’ make special arrangements for the conveyance of motorists visiting Norway for holiday purposes.

Further information can be obtained from the B. and N. Line Royal Mail Ltd., 25, Whitehall, London, S. W. 1.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – A constitutional monarchy, with a constitution dating back originally to 1867, but considerably amended in 1919. The sovereign power is declared to reside in the nation. Parliament consists of a single Chamber. of Deputies, whose members are elected for 6 years on the basis of proportional representation by suffrage of all men and women of over 2I. The Cabinet, consisting of a Minister, chosen by the Grand Duchess, and of three directors, acts as executive. There is also a Council of State, an advisory body of 15 members chosen for life by the Grand-Duchess: The Grand-Duchy has been declared neutral territory since 1867. In 1922 it entered into a customs union with Belgium, so that no customs barrier exists between these two countries.

HEAD OF STATE: H.R.H. the Grand-Duchess Charlotte.
Area: 2,586 km2.
Capital: Luxembourg. (Population about 55,000.)
Currency: Belgian francs and centimes.
Languages: French and German. Population: About 290,000.
Density: 112 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system (see general table).


To the TOURIST and SPORTSMAN, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg offers a variety of attractions and pastimes. The town of LUXEMBOURG is both picturesque and interesting, and forms an excellent starting point for many beautiful excursions in the Ardennes and" La Petite Suisse Luxembourgeoise." The country is wooded and interspersed with rocky scenery, ravines, waterfalls, picturesque old castles and quiet villages. The roads are good, hotels comfortable, and trout fishing and shooting are obtainable almost everywhere. The well known State controlled Bath Establishment of MONDORF-LES-BAINS is recommended for the efficacy of its radio-active waters.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – The Government is a constitutional monarchy under a Statute of the Kingdom of Sardinia of 1848. Parliamentary government having met with difficulties, Signor Mussolini was asked by the King to form a Cabinet in 1922, which was given plenary power. By a change in the electoral law, providing that, if in any district a party obtained 25% of the votes, it should be granted two-thirds of the seats, the Government was able to secure stability of administration.

The Chamber of Deputies, originally modelled on the Parliaments of Great Britain and of France, met for the last time in December 19Z8. In its place, a new “corporative chamber” is set up. This was the first parliament that has been created on the syndicalist prinsiple. Thirteen great economic and productive federations or trade unions have been formed, representing employers and workers in each of six main economic groups: industry, commerce, agriculture, banking, sea and transport, land transport, as well as the professional classes. These federations propose men of approved political faith and morals for the Corporative chamber. The Fascist Grand Council, the supreme body of the Fascist regime and a new constitutional organ having advisory and deliberative powers in the political sphere, appointed by the Head of the Government, draws up a list from among their recommendations, adding names of its own should it so desire. A list of 400 thus drawn up being the whole membership of the Chamber, is presented” en bloc” for acceptance or rejection. to the whole of the electorate, consisting only of “those who, on the basis of their syndicalist contribution, show themselves to be active elements in the life of the nation, as well as the other classes which have not been considered by the law of collective labour contracts, but are useful to the nation as a whole.” The whole country is regarded as one constituency. Should this list be rejected, a new one is submitted. The Chamber is elected for 5 years. This electoral law is regarded as being only transitional stage towards a more direct form of corporative representation. The Senate consists of eminent personalities from various branches of activity appointed by the King, on the proposal of the Head of the Government.

There is now also a Council of Corporations, whose President is the head of the Government, an economic advisory organ consisting of the representatives of the Corporations.

The joint responsibility of the Government towards Parliament is replaced by that of the Head of the Government towards the Sovereign.

The Podesta, or local government officers, are appointed by the central government and are assisted by councils which include the representatives of the employers’ and workers organisations.

Head of State: King Vittorio Emanuele III.
Prime Minister: Benito Mussolini.
Area: 310,137 km2.
Capital: Rome. Population about 1,000,000.
Currency: Lire and centimes. 1 lire = 100 cts. At time of going to press, £1 = 68 lire.
Language: Italian.
Population: About 43 millions.
Density: 134 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal System.


ROUGH CLASSIFICATION OF SOME OF THE RESORTS

IMPORTANT TOWNS: (both from a commercial point of view and as tourist centres) : Bologna, Como, Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, Palermo, Rome, Pisa, Turin, Venice, Verona. (From the sightseers’ point of view only): Assist, Belluno, Girgenti, Modena, Orvieto, Padua, Pavia, Perugla, Pompei, Siena, Syracuse, Taormina.

CLIMATIC AND HOLIDAY· RESORTS:
ON LAKES: Baveno, Bellagio, Cadenabbia, Cernobbio, Como, Fasano, Grandola (Golf Course above Lake Como), Lanzo d’Intelvi (above Lakes), Monte Generoso (above Lake Lugano), Orta, Pallanza, Stresa, Tremezzo, Varenna, Varese.

ON SEA: (Mediterranean Riviera): Alassio, Arenzano, Bordighera, Levanto, Nervi, Portofino-Vetta, RapaIlo, San Remo, Santa Margherita, Sestri Levante, Varazze, Viareggio. On the Adriatic: Abbazia, Brioni, the Lido, etc.

IN SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY: Amalfi, Capri, Girgenti, Naples, Palermo, RaveIlo, Sorrento, Syracuse, Taormina.

IN THE ALTO ADIGE AND DOLOMITE REGIONS: Carezza, Cortina, Merano, San Martino di Castrozza.

MOUNTAIN RESORTS ABOVE 3,000 ft. a.s. I: Carezza al Lago, Clavieres, Cortina, Lanzo d’Intelvl, Macugnaga, Monte Generoso, San Martino di Castrozza, Stelvio Pass.


“TOURIST” ITALY

Italy’s wealth of Art Treasures is probably unequalled in the World, and, added to her natural beauty and the charm of her people, renders the Apennine Peninsular one of the most attractive countries of Europe to all nationalities.

Somewhere or other every period of history is represented: by the ancient Greek ruins in Sicily and Southern Italy, the “history in stone” of Herculaneum and Pompei, the grand old standard buildings and ruins of Rome and the ‘wonderful palaces and relics of the Middle Ages and Renaissance period in the cities of Umbna, Tuscany and Northern Italy.

Every variety of climate, pastime and sport are to be found here, as well as hotel accommodation of every description from the “hotel de luxe” down to the most moderate pension.

Those in search of Pleasure and Society congregate of course chiefly in Rome and Florence, where operas, concerts, balls, clubs, etc., make the time pass quickly.

Sight-seeing is not confined to the great centres of Rome, Florence, Milan, Naples and Venice only, for the real lover of art and archeology penetrates into all kinds of nooks and corners, the birth-places of the great masters and the out-of-the-way towns and villages which modern architecture and hotel life have left unspoilt. Such places as Assisi, Bologna, Girgenti, Modena, Orvieto, Padua, Palermo, Pavia, Perugia, Syracuse, Verona, etc. are full of interest. .’

The lover of warmth and scenery settles down on the Italian Riviera which extends on either side of Genoa, the Riviera di Ponente including San’ Remo, Bordighera, Alassio, Arenzano, etc. and the Riviera di Levante extending past Nervi, Pi eve Ligure, Rapallo, St. Margherita, Sestri Levante, Levanto and Portofino to Viareggio. Further South he seeks the sun in Naples, AmaIfi, Ravello, Sorrento, Ischia and Capri; Sicily, with its beautiful Winter climate, its interesting and picturesque shores and ruins, attracts many visitors to such places as Palermo, Syracuse, Agrigentum, Taormina, etc. In Northern Italy, Merano combines mild climate with hilly surroundings. Abbazia on the Adriatic has an exceptionally mild climate. Brioni, off the Istrian Coast, is one of the most attractive resorts for health, pleasure and sport.

The Italian Lake District is the great intermediate rendez-vous of tourists to Italy. It includes, Varese, the Lake of Como with Como itself, Bellagio, Cadenabbia, Cernobbio, Menaggio (for Grandola Golf Course), Tremezzo, etc.; the Lago Maggiore with Bavello,’ Pallanza and Stresa, the peaceful little Lake of Orta, On the heights above the Lakes the combination of bracing air and sun attracts people to such places as Lanzo d’Intelvi, Monte Generoso, etc.

SEA BATHING can be had to perfection on the Lido (boats from Venice run every few minutes), at Viareggio with its miles of sunny sands (preferably to be visited in early and late season), also at Levanto, Sestri Levante, Santa Margherita, Rapallo, and other places on the Riviera South of Genoa. West of Genoa, Alassio, Arenzano, San Remo, Varazze and other Winter Riviera resorts have been opening for Summer bathing. On the Adriatic, Abbazia and Brioni are both very popular.

MOUNTAIN RESORTS in Northern Italy include the following: Carezza al Lago (5500 ft.) on the Dolomite Road; Clavieres (5870 ft.) in the Piedmont above Turin; Cortina (4000 ft.a.s.l.) in the heart of the Dolomites; Lanzo d’Intelvi (3000 ft.a.s.l.) above Como and Lugano; Macugnaga (4300 ft.a.s.l.) above Domodossola; Monte Generoso (5000 ft.a.s.l.) above Capolago near Lugano (on the Swiss Frontier) ; San Martino di Castrozza (4800 ft.a.sI) in the heart of the Dolomites; Santa Catarina Val Furva (5800 ft.a.s.l.); Solda (Sulden) (6350 ft.a.s.l.) just off the Northern descent of the Stelvio Pass; Trafoi (5zoo ft.a.s.l.) on the Northern descent of theStelvio Pass and the Stelvio Pass itself.

LOW RAILWAY RATES IN ITALY Railway rates in Italy are normally low, but in spite of this fact extraordinary concessions are made on circular tours, on long journeys and on return tickets, the reductions offered sometimes reaching 70 per cent. In order to avail himself of these concessions, the prospective traveller should apply for particulars to the Italian State Tourist Department (E.N.I.T.), Via Margheraz, Rome, or to its offices in the principal cities of the world.

INSURANCE POLICIES ON LUGGAGE are on sale in Italian Hotels.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbHEAD OF STATE: Regent of Hungary, Admiral Nicolas Horty de Nagybanya.
Area: 92,960 km2.
Capital: Budapest. Population nearly one million.
Currency: Pengo and fillers. 1 pengo = IOO fillers.
Language: Hungarian.
Population: Between 8 and 9 million.
Density: 92,7 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system throughout (see general table).


BUDAPEST
From London 39 hours. From Paris 34 hours. From Bertin 20 hours. From Vienna 4 ½ hours. From Prague 11 hours. From Trieste 17 hours. From Venice 20 hours. Excellent express service in all directions. Autostrada to Vienna. Also Danube Steamers.

One of the most interesting and finest cities in Europe. The only capital with first-rate healing springs, containing sulphur, iron, sulphate of magnesia, etc. Radio-active thermal waters and mud baths, carbonic acid baths, thermal swimming pool. Treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia, sciatica. Sand and sun baths on the shore of the Danube.

International Tennis. Golf. Winter sports in the neighbourhood. Numerous bright restaurants and cafés.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbHEAD OF STATE: Regent of Hungary, Admiral Nicolas Horty de Nagybanya.
Area: 92,960 km2.
Capital: Budapest. Population nearly one million.
Currency: Pengo and fillers. 1 pengo = IOO fillers.
Language: Hungarian.
Population: Between 8 and 9 million.
Density: 92,7 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system throughout (see general table).


BUDAPEST
From London 39 hours. From Paris 34 hours. From Bertin 20 hours. From Vienna 4 ½ hours. From Prague 11 hours. From Trieste 17 hours. From Venice 20 hours. Excellent express service in all directions. Autostrada to Vienna. Also Danube Steamers.

One of the most interesting and finest cities in Europe. The only capital with first-rate healing springs, containing sulphur, iron, sulphate of magnesia, etc. Radio-active thermal waters and mud baths, carbonic acid baths, thermal swimming pool. Treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia, sciatica. Sand and sun baths on the shore of the Danube.

International Tennis. Golf. Winter sports in the neighbourhood. Numerous bright restaurants and cafés.

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697_rollfix

The Rollfix was manufactured from 1933 in Hamburg-Wandsbek. (Germany). Two models were made with a 2-seater vehicle and an estate car.  Interestingly whilst both vehicles were 3-wheelers they used a different wheel configuration. The two-seater had a single rear wheel driven by a 200cc llo engine and the estate version having a rear mounted engine driving two rear wheels. Production ceased in 1936.

Text from 3wheelers.com

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Holland

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbHolland is a constitutional monarchy in which the Crown has retained very considerable powers. The Crown appoints its ministers who must be responsible to the Lower House. The Legislature is the States-General, consisting of an Upper and a Lower House. The Lower House of 100 members is elected by universal suffrage of both sexes on the principle of proportional representation. The Upper House of 50 members is elected by the Provincial Estates (or large local Government bodies) for 6 years, one half of its members retiring every 3 years. A Council of State of 14 members appointed by the Sovereign from among notable personages exists in an advisory capacity.

HEAD OF STATE: Queen Wilhelmina.
Arear: 32.673 km2.
Capital towns: Amsterdam is the administrative and commercial Capital. The Legislature the Court and the Diplomatic Corps are, however, at The Hague.
Currency: Guilders (florins) and cents. I guilder = 100 cts.
At time of going to press, £ I = 8 ½ guilders
Language: Dutch.
Population: 7 to 8 million.
Density: 236.6 per km2,
Weights and Measures: Decimal system throughout.


Among the chief places visited by tourists are the following:

ALKMAAR (picturesque)
AMSTERDAM (administrative and commercial Capital; famous picture gallery)
DELFT (famous Delft Ware)
HAARLEM (tulip fields in April and May)
LEYDEN (ancient and picturesque; famous University; tulip fields near to)MIDDELBURG (picturesque)
ROTTERDAM (important -commercial port)
SCHEVENINGEN (fashionable sea-bathing)
THE HAGUE (the Diplomatic Capital)
UTRECHT (Ecclesiastical centre; Cathedrals and Carillon; famous University)

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT The most typical feature of the British constitution is the extent to which the legal structure which is its basis has been overgrown by constitutional understandings which have not the force of law. It is in virtue of legal rules, of statutes (acts of parliament) and of the common law (national custom enforceable in courts of justice), –

(a) That supreme authority over the affairs of the Empire is vested in the King-in-parliament;

(b) "That the monarchy is hereditary;

(c) That there are entitled to sit in the House of Lords all who hold hereditary peerages of England or of the United Kingdom together with sixteen Scottish and twenty-eight Irish peers elected to represent their fellows, twenty-six of the bishops of the Church of England, and the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, distinguished lawyers granted for life the dignity of lords of Parliament in order to make it possible for them to assist the House in it!’ judicial business;

(d) That the House of Commons consists of 615 members elected for a period not exceeding five years by all adult citizens voting for the most part in geographical constituencies, the great majority of which return a single member, the candidate who has secured a larger number of votes than any of his rivals, but not necessarily the support of a majority of the electors, being elected;

(e) That legislation requires the assent of King, Lords and Commons, the King being entitled to veto any bill and it only being possible to dispense with the assent of the Lords when a bill has been passed by the Commons and rejected by the Lords three times within the life of one Parliament, there being an interval of not less than twelve months between each two of these times, or when a bill approved once by the Commons and rejected by the Lords has been certified by the Speaker of the House of Commons to be exclusively a finance bill;

(f) That, subject to a considerable number of statutory exceptions, all executive power belongs to the King who may only be sued with his permission but who must have recourse to the Courts before he can deprive any of his subjects of life, liberty or property;

(g) That there exists an elaborate system of courts, or rather two systems, one for England another for Scotland. the English system including the unpaid justices of the peace who dispose of an immense amount of petty business, the local county courts for civil business, the local assizes at which judges of the High Court dispose of most of the important criminal cases, the High Court of Justice which has its headquarters in the Strand and is the nucleus of the English judicial system, and the House of Lords sitting for judicial business, the supreme court of appeal for English and Scottish cases but not for Dominion appeals which are heard by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council;

(h) That the city, borough and county councils to which recent statutes have transferred most of the functions formerly performed by ad hoc bodies, such as sanitary and highways boards and guardians of the poor, enjoy so large a measure of autonomy within the limits of their statutory powers. – Such are the dry bones of the Constitution.

Those who would understand the living reality must learn something of the tissue of constitutional conventions which have ‘been woven round them. It is in virtue of constitutional conventions, or customs which are not rules of law enforceable in courts of justice –

(a) That the royal veto has fallen into disuse, its only function at the present time being to enable the Government of the United Kingdom to prevent the passage of legislation of which it disapproves in colonies which do not enjoy Dominion status; (b) That the executive power still formally invested in the King is in fact exercised by him on the advice of a Cabinet consisting of Ministers who have the support of a majority of the House of Commons.

The conventions of the constitution came into existence through the gradual accumulation of precedents and are always liable to undergo unexpected modifications. Thus the doctrine of the collective responsibility of the cabinet, the doctrine that the cabinet must always present a united front to public opinion and that individual members of it must not disclose their disagreement with the views of their colleagues, was suspended for a time in exceptional circumstances early in 1932, though it had then been looked on for a century as one of the most fundamental of the conventions of the constitution.

On the other hand the conventions of the constitution are sometimes transformed into legal rules by the enactment of legislation. Thus the relations between the two Houses of Parliament which were for long entirely governed by the conventions of the constitution are now regulated, in part, by the Parliament Act of 19II, and the principle that the Imperial Parliament does not legislate for the self-governing dominions without their consent has recently been given legal form in the Statute of Westminster.

Legal rules and constitutional conventions are of course supplemented by rules of parliamentary practice, examples of which are the rule that only Ministers of the Crown may request the House of Commons to approve the expenditure of public money and the practice of reading every bill three times in each House with a discussion of its details" in committee" intervening between the second and third readings.

HEAD OF STATE: King George V.
Area: 241,768 km2 (including Northern Ireland).
Population: Over 45 million (including Northern Ireland).
Capital: London (population of Greater London about 8 million).
Languages: English, Gaelic, Welsh.
Currency: Pounds (£), Shillings (s. or /-) and Pence (d.). £1. = 20/-, 1/- = 12 d. Half-crowns (2/6), Florins (2/-) and coins of 1/-, 6d., 3d., 1d., ½ d., and one farthing ( ¼ d.) are in circulation. The Guinea (21/-) is still in use on bills, but no notes or coins are issued for the amount.
Weights and Measures: An old and complicated system is still in use, the Decimal System not yet having been adopted. It is useful to remember that the English pound (16 ozs.) weighs about one tenth less than the pound (or ½ kg.) on the Continent; that letters are weighed in ounces (postage abroad 2 ozs. 2 ½ d.) : that materials are sold by the yard (about nine tenths of a metre); that altitude is calculated in feet (three feet to the yard); temperature is given in Fahrenheit (zero Centigrade = 320 Fahrenheit); 1000 C (boiling point) = 2120 Fahrenheit.)


"TOURIST" ENGLAND

Though Great Britain may not present the same variety of travel as the Continent, a great deal of pleasure can be obtained by a sojourn in the British Isles. The English countryside, with its green lanes, winding rivers and old-world country villages off the beaten track, is a delight to motorists, and the beautiful old Cathedrals, picturesque castles and ruins are unsurpassed anywhere. Oxford and Cambridge are unique. At the various seaside resorts every type of Britsher is represented, and sports and games of every description show the life of the country. The frequent express trains and innumerable luxurious motor-coaches running in every direction greatly facilitate travel and sight-seeing, "Hotels de luxe " are of the very best, whilst more moderate hotels have greatly increased in comfort, especially in tourist resorts, and the country hotel retains much of its "old Inn" charm. The foreign visitor should avoid the old-fashioned boarding house, where he may be given a bed varying in comfort according to the age of the mattress (these are regularly renewed on the Continent) and is asked to pay for the so-called English breakfast which he probably does not want and of which he gets the aroma before coming down whether he wants it or not. Also Worcester Sauce, cayenne pepper, piccallilies and "unadulterated" mustard, however much appreciated by the Britisher, do not make cold mutton and boiled cabbage palatable to the average foreign visitor.

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Germany

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbHEAD OF STATE (1933):
President Field-Marshall von Hindenburg.
Area: 470,664 km2.
Capital: Berlin, Population over 4 million.
Currency: Marks and pfennig,
I Mk. = 100 pfennig.
Language: German.
Population: About 65 million.
Density: 137,2 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system.


“TOURIST" GERMANY

There is a great deal of difference between Southern and Northern Germany. "Gemutlichkeit" best expresses the character of the people of the South, "efficiency" that of the more northern races, but throughout the traveller is struck by the orderly way in which things are done, though when "Ordnung " 15 earned to excess, admiration occasionally verges on aggravation. Putting aside the beauties of nature and wonderful relics of the past in which such districts as the Black Forest and Bavaria abound, part of their charm lies in the cheeriness of the people, in the cosiness of the well-lit inns and restaurants, and the "Garten-Restaurant " .with its music and large variety of drinks and food. In the hilly forest districts, walking excursions, hiking, sun baths, car tours, are part of the local life and not confined to tourists. In large towns, clean streets, well-built houses, bright shops and most efficient transport strike the foreign -visitor. Theatre, opera and music generally attain a higher average standard than at home. Hotels of the better class are perfect in every detail and are usually provided with excellent restaurants. The more modest establishments are scrupulously clean and modern throughout. Inns for "hikers" are clean and cosy. Music, dancing, wireless and a general "Bohemianism" wile away the evening hours. Casinos still hold their sway in the Kurort. Watering pJaces provide more scientific baths and treatment than ever before. Through train-service is everywhere efficient; public cars are roomy, comfortable and heated in Winter the Rhine steamers still carry visitors past romantic spots, beautified through the glamour of a good vintage. Money may be scarce, but the German WORKS. Further, there is in most places still a feeling that the guest is welcome, or at any rate that no trouble is being spared to make him comfortable This remnant of old-time hospitality is very acceptable.


The districts of Germany may be roughly classified in the following manner:

BAVARIA: Munich, its beautiful Capital, with broad streets and extensive Parks, is the artistic centre of Germany and renowned allover the world for its Picture-Galleries, Music Conservatorium, Opera, Stained-glass manufactories, Museums and, last but not least, for the famous "Munich Beer" (a visit should be paid to the Hofbrauhaus). "The Alte Pinakothek" and the "Neue Pinakothek " are the largest Picture-Galleries. The former contain Old Masters and a collection of vases, antiquities, etc., the latter modern pictures only. Nurnberg, one of the oldest and most historically interesting towns in Germany, is almost entirely surrounded by mediaeval walls. The quaint old buildings and modern imitations of same render the town unique. The Museums are of extreme interest. Bayreuth with its famous Wagnerian Opera House can be visited from here. Rothenburg on the Taube is considered the most picturesque town in Germany. In the BAVARIAN HIGHLANDS lie the cure resorts of Berchtesgaden and Bad Reichenhall, the latter famous for its treatment of affections of the respiratory organs, heart etc.

THE BLACK FOREST: with Freiburg as its capital, an old University town and good educational centre generally, includes amongst other cure resorts Baden-Baden, Badenweiler, Wildbad, Glotterbad near Freiburg, St. Biasien and Todtmoos. Branch railways and a network of car services render access easy to all the above-mentioned places, as well as to Titlsee and Triberg and to the charming smaller intervening places. Vast pine forests, interspersed here and there with Lakes and fertile valleys, cover this hilly district, only such summits as the Feldberg standing out above tree level. This, as well as a number of other resorts are open for Winter Sports. With the pedestrian, angler and motorist the Black Forest is popular from Spring to late Autumn. Excellent shooting can also be obtained. To the North of the Black Forest on the way to Frankfurt lie Heidelberg with its famous University and mediaeval Castle, and the important industrial centres of Karlsruhe and Mannheim .

THE HARZ: Mountain resorts reached via Hanover, Berlin or Leipzig, are full of romantic scenery.

THE RHINE: as known to tourists, can be visited by steamer, train or car and extends from the fine old city of Cologne (Koln} in the North to the picturesque town of Mayence (Mainz) at the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Main. This part embraces the many romantic Castles, the famous vineyards; the Lorelei Rock, and the town of Coblenz at the confluence of the Rhine and Moselle and facing the fine old fortress of Ehrenbreitstein. The river traffic, consisting largely of immense barges, and the bridge of boats at Coblenz are interesting and picturesque. Amongst the most famous watering places in this neighbourhood and in the wooded Taunus mountains are the Baths of Ems (near Coblenz), Homburg and Nauheim (near Frankfurt). Schlangenbad and Schwalbach near Wiesbaden, and Wiesbaden with its bright Casino life and world-renowned waters. Aachen, famous for its waters, is one of the most interesting cities in Northern Germany.

SAXONY: includes Dresden which attracts a large number of visitors chiefly by its Wagnerian Operas and Picture Galleries.

THURINGIA: with its beautiful forests is an excellent district for the motorist. Amongst important towns of Germany not mentioned above are Berlin, the Capital, Bremen, Breslau, Chernnitz, Dusseldorf, Hamburg, Hanover, Karlsruhe, Leipzig, Stettln, These are all large industrial and commercial centres, and, although they may offer various attractions to visitors, they do not profess to "cater" for the tourist.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – The French Constitution is embodied in three fundamental laws passed 1875, of a time when monarchy was being seriously considered. The President has thus many of the attributes of the constitutional sovereign of other countries. He is elected for a term of 7 years by the two houses in joint session. He nominally appoints ministers. He is " above party".

The legislature consists of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate. The Chamber of Deputies is elected for 4 years by universal male suffrage over 21 by single-member constituencies. Should a member fail to obtain an absolute majority of votes on a first ballot, a second ballot is taken a week later, at which the candidate with the largest number of votes is elected. The Senate is elected by special departmental electoral colleges, consisting of the deputies for the department, the elected representatives of the various local areas.

Senators must be over 40, sit for 9 years, one-third retiring every 3 years. It acts mainly as a brake on ill-considered legislation.

The large number of parties is apt to render the Government unstable. but this is to some extent compensated by the stability of the administration. Local Government is dependent on higher authority, administration being thus very centralized.

HEAD OF STATE: (elected 1932)" Albert Lebrun, President.
Area: 550,986 km2.
Capital: Paris (Greater Paris has a population of about 5 millions).
Currency: Francs and centimes. I franc = 100 cts.
Languages: French is the official language. In local areas Breton, Basque, Alsatian, and Flemish are spoken, as well as the different dialects of the Languedoc (Provencal). Some of these languages have their own literature.
Population: Over 41 millions.
Density: 74,6 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system.

The Principality of Monaco is surrounded by French territory and the Mediterranean Sea. It is generally classified with the French Riviera, of which Monte-Carlo is one of the centres of attraction.


SPORTS, PASTIME AND SIGHTSEEING

BATHING: (Sea Coasts): The Northern Coast (Channel and Atlantic): Dinard, Le Tcuqnet-Parfs-Plage, etc. The Southern Atlantic Coast: Blarritz, St. Jean de Luz. The Riviera: Bandol s. Mer, Cannes, Cap d’Ail, Mentone, Monte~CarJoJ Nice, Sf-Raphael

BATHING: (Lake Shores): Aix-Ies-Bains (at Grand Port), Anneey, Dulngl (Les Llbellules) Menthon, Talioires (Lac d’ Annecy).

CLIMATIC RESORTS: (mild); Bandol, Biarritz, Cannes, Cap d’An, Mentone, Monte-Carlo, Nice, Pau, St. jean-ae-t.ez, SI. Raphael.

CLIMATIC. RESORTS: (higher altitude); Chamonix., Les "ouches, Megeve, Passy, Sancetlemoz, Sallanches, Sixt, St. Gervais-Ies-Bains,

FOX HUNTING: Biarritz, Le Touquet-Parls-Plage, Pau.

GAMBLING: (cercles prives)! Aix-les-Bains, Biarritz, Cannes, Dinard, Evian, Touquet-Parts-Plage, Monte-Carlo, Nice.

GOLF: Aix-Ies-Bains, Biarritz, Cannes, Dieppe, Dlnard, Evian, Hyeres, Le Fayet-St-Gervais, TouquetParls-Plage, Megeve, Mentone, Monte-Carlo, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Pau, St. Raphael, St. jean-de-Luz,

IMPORTANT TOWNS: (both from a commercial point of view and as tourist centres): Bordeaux, Colmar, Grenoble, LilIe, Marseilles, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Strasbourg.

MOUNTAIN RESORTS: Argentleres, Chamonix-Mont-Blanc, Le Buet, Les Houches-M.-B., LesPraz, Megeve, Mont-Roc, Passy, Pralognan, Sallanches, Servoz, Sixt, St. tiervais-les-Bains.

MOUNTAINEERING: Argentleres, Chamonlx-Mont-Blanc, Le Buet, Les Houches-M.-B., Meg"ve, Pralognan, St. Gervais, Sixt.

POLO: Biarritz, Cannes, Le Touquet, Paris.

TENNIS: (International Tournaments); Aix":les-Bains, Biarritz, Cannes, Chamonix, Dinard, Dieppe, Evian, Le Touquet-Paris-Plage, Mentone, Monte- Carlo, Nice, Paris, Pau. Good courts are of course found at all places and hotels of importance.

TROUTFISHING: The Ardennes, the Chamonix Valley, Chaumont, Colmar (Vosges) the Pyrenees’, Digne, Sisteron, Besancon, Pontarlier, etc.

WINTER SPORTS: Argentleres, Chamonix, Les Houches, Megeve, Mont-Roc, Pontarlier, Sallanches, SI.Gervals, etc.

WATERING PLACES AND CURE ESTABLISHMENTS: Aix-Ies-Balns, Chlltel-Guyon, Evlan, Passy, Sancellemoz. St. Gervais-Ies-Bains. ‘

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Denmark

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbCONSTITUTION – Denmark is a constitutional monarchy, in which the legislative authority is exercised by the Crown and Parliament jointly. The King appoints the Ministers. Parliament consists of the Folketing and the Landsting. The Folketing is elected by all men and women of over 25 and the Landsting by those over 35.

HEAD OF STATE: King Christian X.
Area: 44,300 km2.
Capital: Copenhagen. (Population 770,000.)
Currency: Kroner and Øre. I Kr. = 100 Øre.
Language: Danish.
Population: 3 ½ millions.
Density: 79.0 per km2.

The charm of the country, the hospitality of the people and the healthy climate make Denmark an ideal holiday resort, and those who have visited the country have found much to interest them. Copenhagen is one of the brightest of northern capitals and possesses many fine buildings, including the Stock Exchange and Towers. Thorvaldsen’s Museum is of considerable interest. The Castle of Kronberg (the scene of Shakespeare’s "Hamlet") by the entrance to the Sound, can easily be visited from Copenhagen. Education is of a high standard. Anyone interested in farming should visit the large co-operative dairy centres.


Rough classification of some of the places worth visiting:

IMPORTANT TOWNS: Copenhagen (the Capital) and Aarhus (the second largest town), both interesting also from the sight-seer’s point of view.

LAKE AND FISHING RESORT: Slikeborg.

PICTURESQUE TOWNS: Aalborg, Faaborg, Odense (Island of Funen), the birthplace of Hans Andersen.

PORTS: Copenhagen (the key to the Baltic), Esbjerg (the Scandinavian Route steamers from Harwich land here). Svendborg (island excursion centre).

SEA SIDE RESORTS: (good sands) Fand, Skagen (The Scaw).


WHEN VISITING DENMARK, travel by the SCANDINAVIAN ROUTE via Harwich-Esbjerg. Sailings every weekday. The Boat Train "Scandinavian" leaves London (Liverpool Street Station) 7:42 p.m. Restaurant Car attached.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – A democratic republic which received recognition in 1918 with a president as head of the State to be’ elected for a term of 7 years by the National Assembly. The first president, Dr. Masaryk, was elected for life. The President can dissolve the Assembly. This consists of a Chamber of Deputies (300 members) elected for a term of 6 years by universal suffrage of both sexes over 21 on the principle of proportional representation; and of a Senate of 150 members similarly elected (voters must however have reached the age of 26) for a term of 8 years. Laws may be declared unconstitutional by a special Constitutional Court. Parties are very numerous, being formed both along political and racial group lines.

Head of State: President Dr. Masaryk.
Area: 140.499 km2.
Capital: Prague.
Population: between 6 and 7 hundred thousand.
Currency: Koruna (Krone) and hale (heller). 1Kc. = 100 h
Languages: Czech, Slovak, German and Magyar
Population: 14 ½ million.
Density: 104,8 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system.


Chief Watering Places:
Carlsbad (Karlovy Vary),Joachimstal(Jachymov), Franzenbad (Frantiskovy Lazne) , Marienbad (Marianske Lazne) , Pistany (Pieastany)

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Austria

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – The republican Constitution of Austria, prepared in 1919 makes what remains of Austro-Hungarian Empire into a federal state of 8 provinces. The federal government is given very considerable power, nearly all the revenue being federal, though its expenditure is frequently left to the provinces. When jurisdiction is not determined, it is vested in the Provinces.

The President is elected for six years by the Federal Assembly, consisting of the National Council, whose members are elected for six years by universal suffrage of both sexes over 20 on the principle of proportional representation, and of the Federal Council whose members are elected by the Provincial Diets for their own duration and in proportion to the population of the province. The National Council may be summoned by the Government or by one-third of its members. The Federal Council can only delay a bill and cause it to be reconsidered by the National Council. The National Council may also suggest a referendum. Laws may also be initiated by popular initiative, 200,000 signatures, or half the voters in any three provinces being required.

Provincial Diets are also elected on universal suffrage. Any law passed by them must be submitted to a federal minister for reference, who may enter an objection to it, but the Provincial Diet is still free to pass the Bill again. The Federal Government, with the assent of the Federal Council, can dissolve a provincial diet.

HEAD OF STATE: President Wilhelm Miklas.
Area: 83,857 km2.
Capital: Vienna (Population nearly 2 millions).
Currency: Schilling and Groschen. r Seh. = 100 Gr.
Language: German.
Population: Between 6 and 7 millions.
Density: 80,2 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal System


BATH RESORTS: (curative waters): Badgastein, Goisern, Villach-Warmbad.

DANUBE RESORTS: Linz, Vienna.

LAKE RESORTS: Igls above Innsbruck, Ober-Dellach and Pdrtschach on the worthersee. (Car’lnthian GOLF-CLUB).

MOUNTAIN and SUB-ALPINE RESORTS: Badgastein, Igls, Innsbruck, Ober-Dellach, Pörtsehach, Semmering, Villach.

WINTER SPORT RESORTS: Igls, Innsbruck, Semmering, St. Anton.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_smallFULL PAGE ADS

It looks like a full page ads in this publication was pretty pricy as there was rather few of them. Few of them were for holiday and health resorts as well, but rather for large traveling bureaus and shipping lines. Here are the lot of them – Ted

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

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“TOURIST” FLORA

Flowers add greatly to the delights of travel. Unfortunately the right season for a certain flower is often missed.

The ALPINE FLORA is one of the charms of the higher regions. The season varies according to altitude. The "Alpenrose" (Rhododendron), so exquisitely beautiful midst glacier scenery, begins to flower in June at an altitude of about 4000 feet and can still be picked at 6,000 feet and over at the end of July. In medium altitudes the Alpenrosen are thus at their best in June; higher up they are found at the end of the month and in early July. In August they are practically over. Mountain Anemonies, including the beautiful saffron-coloured species, last from May to July, being at their best at an altitude of 4-5000 feet about the middle of May. The Spring Gentian flowers from April onwards and is found in the high alpine meadows as late as July. The stemless gentian (deep blue) can be picked from June onwards at about 4000 feet a.s.l., and up to 9000 feet until August. Edelweiss, a much over-rated flower, though often picked in seemingly inaccessible places, is sometimes found growing illus_009profusely in alpine meadows from about 6000 to 11,000 feet a.s.l. between July and September. The Globe Flower, a favorite; is found from May to July, sometimes fairly low down. The mountain Cyclamen flowers from July to October in wooded country. The Soldanetla, Auricula and Primula appear from May to June from 5000 feet upwards, the Primula being the last to go.

On the FRENCH and ITALIAN RIVIER the flowers increase in beauty from January onwards until early Summer. For new-comers the Mimosa tree in blossom has a great attraction. Violets, primroses and wild anemonies appear in February and the- fields of cultivated flowers are at their best from February to April.

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SPRING FLOWERS in the lowlands of Switzerland and Savoy, chiefly primroses, violets, anemonies, lent lilies and narcissi, vary according to district and season. They are all particularly beautiful round about the Lake of Geneva and the Swiss-Italian Lakes in April and May. In the latter month the fields of Narcissi above Montreux are one of the sights of Switzerland. The "Féte des Narcisses" at Montreux is well worth seeing.

FLOWERING SHRUBS (camelias, wistaria, mimosa etc.), are at their best on the shores of the Italian Lakes in May and June, the Rhododendron and some others later, the roses throughout the Summer. A "Féte des Camelias " is held at Locarno.

ORCHARDS, most beautiful against the blue waters of Swiss and other lakes, should be seen in May.

The TULIP fields of Holland (best between Leyden and Haarlem) bloom during April and May.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb1ROADS OF THE FUTURE

Travel a hundred miles an hour in comfort. Roads forty feet wide…… Perfect surface…… No level crossings, cross-roads or villages….. Long lines of flood-lit surface at night….. Europe a network of perfect roads….. Is all this simply a vision of the future? It may be so, but the means to make this vision a reality exist. Such roads can be built, and what is more can be made to pay. Capital and labour are there; the demand for such roads exists; only enterprise is lacking to create a. vast network of specially built motor roads linking up all the main points in Europe. Various plans have been prepared, but what is wanted is a co-ordinated and uniform European system and not only odd disconnected stretches of special roads. Recently an International Bureau of Motor Roads has been set up with headquarters in Geneva to promote the idea and to co-ordinate the plans which have been made. This Bureau has issued a map of the roads it considers would constitute a rational European network to Governments, Automobile Clubs and other interested Associations, asking them for their comments and suggestions."

It is contemplated that such roads would consist of two tracks each twenty feet wide separated by a low wall from which the surface would be flood-lit at night. All passages through towns and villages, over level crossings and so forth, would be eliminated. Cross-roads would no longer exist, bridges being built over other roads: At the same time the streak of light constituted by such roads at night would be a guide to aircraft.

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Already a few such roads exist in Italy (Milan to the Lakes, Milan-Bergamo, Milan-Turin, Naples-Pompeii, etc.). These have yielded regular dividends on the capital invested. It is calculated that a charge of a penny per mile for small cars would be enough. Complete plans exist for building such roads from Calais to Paris and from Paris to Lille. On such flat ground there would only be a slight turn in every twenty-miles or so. A Toad from Hamburg to Basle which would later continue through to Italy is also planned. A company has been formed to build a special road from ·Evian to Geneva and Lyons and from Geneva to Besancon, Important interests are desirous of driving a tunnel under Mont Blanc from Les Houches in the Chamonix Valley to Courmayeur, thus providing the only motor road other than the Riviera one linking Western Europe to Italy throughout the year without shipping cars by train through the tunnels. Will Great Britain join in by a Channel tunnel for cars? Who knows! Probably our very up-to-date strategists might consider that such a tunnel would endanger Britain’s natural defences.

Of course objections at once occur to the mind; the sceptic may ask: "Is there really any demand for such horrible roads and this dreadful speed?" Anyone who has motored in some parts of the Continent will promptly reply that, speed or no speed, the danger of killing dogs and running into old women, the tediousness of mud and bumps, will amply justify the building of such roads.

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Could capital be obtained? Masses of savings are lying in bank deposit accounts seeking a safe investment. Yet – but would it be a safe one? Perhaps Government guarantees forinterest might be obtained. The State stands to gain by such roads being built. – And the cost? The cost of building a network of these roads could be met in about 20 years by a charge equivalent to one penny (gold) per gallon of petrol at present consumed in Europe. If the nineteenth century could find capital for railways, cannot the twentieth provide capital for such roads which would cost much less per mile to build? – Labour? Now is the time to build. Millions of unemployed in Europe ask no better than to be given a chance to work. In times of prosperity such work may not be required, but who can deny that a big enterprise of this nature in a time of depression is just what is wanted to encourage weary industries and enable the worker to consume more, thus setting the wheels of trade going again. The motorist will prove that the demand exists by being ready to pay for the facilities offered.

Such co-ordinated work would be one of the best means of breaking the" vicious circle" of under consumption and unemployment of the factors of production prevailing at present, and would have the additional advantage of welding dis-united Europe into something more like unity.

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