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I’,m afraid you’re going to have to wait a while for the midnight sun. I didn’t realise that this was a created playlist. Make yourself a cup of coffee, loosen your tie and prepare for a round trip of Europe 😉

Movie found on travelfilmarchive on Youtube

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a12056_Standard Superior_01

History

In the first half of 1932, Wilhelm Gutbrod, the President of the Standard Fahrzeugfabrik, came into contact with German engineer Josef Ganz. Ganz had been working on a small car design since the early 1920s and had so far built two prototypes, one for Ardie in 1930 and one for Adler in 1931, called the Maikäfer (May Beetle). After a demonstration with the Maikäfer by Ganz, Gutbrod was most interested to build a small car according to this design. The Standard Fahrzeugfabrik then purchased a license from Ganz to develop and build a small car according to his design. The prototype of this new model, which was to be called Standard Superior, was finished in 1932. It featured a tubular chassis, a mid-mounted engine, and independent wheel suspension with swing-axles at the rear.

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Models

The first production model of the Standard Superior was introduced at the IAMA (Internationale Automobil- und Motorradausstellung) in Berlin in February 1933. It had a transverse 396cc, two-cylinder, two-stroke engine mounted in front of the rear axle. Because of some criticism to the body design, not in the least by Josef Ganz in Motor-Kritik, it was followed in April 1933 by a slightly altered model.

In November 1933 the Standard Fahrzeugfabrik introduced yet another new and improved model for 1934, which was slightly longer with one additional window on each side and had a small seat for children or as luggage space in the back. This car was advertised as the German "Volkswagen" (a term that means, literally, "people’s car" in German.

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The Volkswagen Beetle connection

With the Ardie-Ganz, Adler Maikäfer and Standard Superior cars, as well as his progressive writings and promotion of the concept of a Volkswagen (people’s car) in Motor-Kritik magazine since the 1920s, Josef Ganz is claimed by some to have had input into the Volkswagen Beetle. These cars had some of features of the later Volkswagen Beetle, such as the tubular chassis, rear-mounted engine and independent wheel suspension with swing axles. While the Volkswagen Beetle was produced in its millions after World War Two, the name of Josef Ganz was largely forgotten. In 2004, Dutch journalist Paul Schilperoord started researching the life and work of Josef Ganz, and in 2011 he published The Extraordinary Life of Josef Ganz: The Jewish Engineer Behind Hitler’s Volkswagen.

Text from Wikipedia

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbROUGH CLASSIFICATION OF SOME OF THE MOST POPULAR SWISS RESORTS

SUMMER MOUNTAIN RESORTS: (For those opening in Winter, see Winter Sports Resorts) :Adelboden, Airolo, Anderrn rtt Arolla, Arosa Arveyes, Axenfels, Ballaigues, Beatenberg, Berisal, Binn, Bricolla, Btirgenstock, Caux, Celerina, Charnper y, Champex, Chateau-d’Oex, Chesieres, Col des Plariches, Centers, Corbeyrier, Crans-sur-Sierre, Davos, Diablerets, Eggishom, Engelberg, Etivaz (Bains d’), Evolena, Fafleralp, Ferpecle, Fiesch, Finhaut, Forclaz, Frutigen, Gletsch, Griesalp, Grimentz, Grindelwald, Gruben-Meiden, Gryon, Gstaad, Guttannen, Gsteig, Innertkirchen, Interlaken, Kandersteg, Klosters, Lauterbrunnen, La Fouly, La Sage, Lenk, Lenzerheide, Les Hauderes, Les Plans s. Bex, Les Rasses, Le Sepey, Leysin (climatic), Maloja, Mayens de Sion, Meiringen, Montana, Muhlen, Monte Generoso, Morschach, Murren, Oeschenen-See, Pontresina, Reuti, Riederalp, Riederfurka, Riffelalp, Rossinieres, Saanen, Saanenrnoser, Saas-Fee , Saas-Grund, Sarnaden, San Bernardino, Savognino, Scheidegg, Seelisberg, Simplon-Kulm, Spliigen, Ste-Croix, St-Mcritz, Taes’ch, Tiefenkastel, Val Ferret, Val d’Illiez, Villars, Weiss horn, Wengen, Wengernalp, Wiesen, Zermatt, Zernez, Zuoz.

RESORTS on or near the following LAKES: Lake of Geneva (Lac Leman), see Caux, Chexbres, Coppet, Evian-Ies-Bains (France), Geneva, Lausanne- Ouchy, Montreux with Clarens and Territet, Nyon, St. Cergue, Vevey, Villeneuve. Lake Lucerne, see Axenfels, Brunnen, Burgenstock, Lucerne, Morschach, Lake Lugano , see Lugano, Cademario, Monte Generoso, Monte Salvatore, Sonvico. Lake Maggiore, see Locarno, Ascona …. and Section ITALY. Lakes of Neuchatel and Bienne, see Neuchatel, Bienne, Cressier, Neuveville, St. Blaise, Yverdon. Lakes of Thoune and Brienz, see Interlaken, Beatenberg, Gunten, Hilterfingen, Oberhofen, Spiez, Thoune. Lake of Zurich, see Zurich. Mountain Lakes, see Arosa, Champex, Crans, Davos, Fafleralp, Le Prese, Klosters, Maloja, Montana, Piora, San Bernardino, St. Moritz.

SPRING, AUTUMN and MID-CLIMATIC RESORTS: PRACTICALLY ALL THE LOWER LAKE DISTRICTS (see above), as well as such places as Ballaigues, Bex-les-Bains, Henniez (Bains d’), Le Prese, Meiringen, Ragaz, Sierre and some of the lower mountain resorts. (For the dates of opening of the latter, see individual insertions.)

WINTER SPORT RESORTS: Adelboden, Andermatt, Arosa, Arveyes, Baltatgues , Beatenberg, Caux, Celerina, Champery, Champex, Chateau-d ‘Oex, Ohesteres , Crans-sur-Sierre, Davos, Diablerets, Engelberg, Grindelwald, Gryon, Griesalp, Gstaad, Gsteig, Jaunpass, Julier Route, Jungfraujoch, Kandersteg, Klosrers ;’ Lenk , Lenzerheide, Le Sepey, Les Rasses, Leysin, Maloja, Montana, Montreux (by mountain railways), Murren, Pontresina, Reuti, Roasinieres , Saanen, Saanenmoser, Samaden, San Bernardino, Splugen , Ste. Croix, St. MOritz, Surlej, Vevey (by mountain railways), Villars, Wengen, Wiesen, Zermatt, Zuoz. – Summer ski-ing on the Jungfraujoch.


SWITZERLAND FOR THE FOREIGN VISITOR

Switzerland, the" Inexhaustible ". is no longer looked upon as a mere tourist district. the World is recognizing more and more the advantages of its health giving properties and educational facilities,

and, now that the League of Nations has" come to stay", it may even be regarded as the centre of International Politics.

The days when people had time to spare are past, and with them the days when EngIish families could afford to put in a few months (sometimes even a few years) of leisurely existence on the Continent , Money is more plentiful, but time scarcer now-a-days. This has affected the Swiss Tourist World to acertain extent though the main Summer mountain resorts and Winter Sport centres are still crowded during the height of their respective seasons. It is for this reason that from time to time some “mumbling and grumbling” regarding prices is heard. If only people would realize how comparatively cheaply they could live when the rush is over and what delightful accommodation would then be offered them for the same terms as a small room during the season, no one except those obliged to, would travel in the full season, excepting, of course in the more remote and less patronized places. Except for actual mountaineering, May and June, when the Alpine Flora is at its best, and Autumn with its glorious colouring, are preferable in any but the highest Mountain resorts. On the lakes and in the lower regions it is during these months that the meadows and orchards offer such a wonderful sight, whilst for Winter Sports, snow conditions from the middle of January to the end of February are usually at their best and the hours of sunshine longer.

From a TOURIST point of view, Switzerland consists of several distinct districts, which can be roughly classified as follows:

THE BERNESE OBERLAND Best reached from Berne via the Lake of Thoune, includes:

THE LAKE RESORTS of Thoune, Hllterflngen , Oberhofen, Gunten and Spiez, with Beatenberg above the Lake;

THE KANDER VALLEY (Berne-Loetschberg-Simplon Railway) leaving from Spiez to Kandersteg, in which lie the stations of Pruttgen (junction for the car service to Adelboden), Reichenbach (junction for Griesalp) ; . The famous excursion centre of Interlaken and the many beautiful Summer and Winter mountain resorts at the foot of the Jungfrau Group (Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen, Murren, Scheldegg , Wengen, Wengernalp) ; The Jungfrau Railway, which carries passengers up to an altitude of 11,400 feet into a world of ice and snow, is unique; The Bernese Oberland extends beyond Lake Brienz to Melrfngen at the foot of the Grimsel, whence the railway continues via Brünig (junction for Hohfluh and Reuti) to Lucerne.

THE GRISONS (Canton of Graubünden), starting at Coire, the Capital, includes the famous high mountain resorts of Arosa, Davos , Klosters, Lenzerheide, Pontresfna , and the Engadine with. Samaden, St. Moritz and Maloja. Sunshine and snow conditions in these higher places can be relied upon m Winter, whilst in Summer the wonderfully bracing air and the sun on the high altItudes is unsurpassed in health-giving properties. The scenery with its white capped mountains, dark pine forests and turquoise blue lakes is beautiful in all parts. The Grisons extends, passing Maloja, towards the Italian Lake DistrIct ; passing the famous baths of Tarasp-Schuls to the Austrian Tyrol; by the Bernma Railway passing Pontresma and Le Prese to Italy, and via Zernez over the Ofen Pass (for Merano in the Alto-Adige). It includes the Albula Pass (by train or car) and the beautiful Car Routes over the Julier, Fluela, Splugen and San Bernardmo Passes.

THE JURA round about the Lakes of Neuchatel and Bienneincludes the Baths of Yverdon and the heights above, where several charming Summer and Winter resorts (Ste. Croix-Ies Rasses , etc.) are dotted amongst the beautiful forests. Ballalgues , being just above Vallorbe, is the nearest Swiss Summer and Winter resort to Paris and a delightful motoring centre. Neuchatel is charmingly situated on Its own Lake. Cressier and St. Blaise are within a short distance of Neuchatel ; Neuveville and Bienne (Biel) (a centre of the watchmaking industry) lie on the northern shore of the Lake of Bienne. Fribourg (Berne-Lausanne main line) and Morat (Murten) (Berne-Lausanne car route) are extremely picturesque and historically interesting old towns. Henniez-Ies-Bains (mineral springs) and Marnand are on the mam Berne-Lausanne car route.

THE LAKE OF GENEVA (Lac Leman) forms the frontier between France and Switzerland, extending from Villeneuve in the Rhone Valley to Geneva, with Montreux, Vevey, Lausanne, Nyon, Coppet, etc. on the Swiss side. Large, comfortable steamers link up all towns and villages on the Lake, whilst railways, trams, funiculars, and car services run from all places to the many beautiful resorts on the heights, famous in Spring for their Flora, in Autumn for the colouring of their wooded slopes, and several of them for Winter sports. This is the most" residential" district of Switzerland for foreigners, partly owing to Its mild climate, partly to its facilities for international travel, and greatly owning to its educational advantages.

GENEVA, now a great international centre, has many attractions. The neighbourhood includes Coppet, Divonne-Ies-Bains (France), Monnetier (France), Nyon, St. Cer gue , and the numerous charming resorts just over the frontier in Savoy.

THE LAKE OF LUCERNE (Vierwaldstattersee) extends from the famous tourist centre of Lucerne, (with Burgenstock and Sonnenberg on the heights above), between the Rigi, Pilatus and other mountains, towards the Briinig Pass; towards the well-known mountain resort of Engelberg, and, passing Seeliberg, Schoneck and other places on its slopes and shores, is rejoined at Brunnen by the Gotthard Railway which leaves it at Fluelen. Morschach and Axenfels lie just above Brunnen. This lake is considered by many to be the most beautiful of Swiss Lakes. In Spring and early Summer, when the orchards are in blossom, this can scarcely be disputed. The Autumn foliage is also very beautiful. -Comfortablesteamers, railway and car services link up all places.

THE PAYS D’ENHAUT lies between the picturesque old town of Gruyeres, the hills North of Lake Geneva and the Bernese Oberland, terminating at Zweisimmen, the junction for Lake Thoune and Lenk. It consists mainly of pasture land, wooded hills and rocky summits, interspersed with picturesque and prosperous villages, including the well-known Summer and Winter resorts of Cha teau-d ‘Oex, Rossfniere , Etivaz (Bains d ‘), a few miles from Cha teauvd”Dex or Le Sepey , Gstaad, Gsteig, Saanenand Saanenmoser and the Jaunpass with the picturesque village of Charmey. Beyond Zweisimrneri lie the Baths of Weissenburg, and at Oey-Diemtigen a road branches off to Grimmialp.

THE RHONE VALLEY, though the river has its source in the beautiful Rhone Glacier at Gletsch, is generally referred to as the district extending from Brigue (junction of the Simplon, Lotschberg and Furka Lines) to Lake Geneva. From a tourist point of view, with the exception of Sion and Sierre, it acts chiefly as the starting point for the numerous mountain resorts on the heights and in its lateral valleys. Commencing from the Lake.

AIGLE for Champery (via Montheyand Val d’I1liez) ; for Corbeyrier ; for Leystn (by funicular or car) ; for Le Sepey and Diablerets and via the Col des Mosses to Chateau-dOex ;

BEX-LES-BAINS for Villars (with Arveyes and Chesteres), Gryon, Les Plans;

MARTIGNY for Lac Champex, the Great St. Bernard, the Val Ferret (La Fouly), Col des Planches, Fionna y, the road to Chamonix via Forclaz and Trient, and the Martigny-Chamonix Electric Railway via Finhaut .

SION for Mayens de Sion, Evolena, La Sage, Les Hauderes , Arolla, Ferpecle and Bricolla ; SIERRE for Montana and Crans, Grimentz, St. Luc, the Weisshorn Hotel and the Val d’Anniviers generally;

TOURTEMAGNE for Gruben-Meiden .

VIRGE for the famous Summer and Winter mountain resort of Zermatt and the Zermatt Valley resorts (Randa, Taesch, etc.), and via Stalden for Saas-Fee and Saas-Grund ;

BRIGUE for the Furka Railway and Route, which includes Fiesch (starting point for the Eggfshorn mountain hotel and Binn) and Gletsch at the foot of the Rhone Glacier and the Grimsel Pass ; For the Loetschberg Railway to Berne, passing the stations of Goppenstein (for Fafleralp), Kandersteg, Fruttgen (for Adelboden), Spiez and Thoune ; For the Simplon Railway and car route to Domodossola (Italy) passing Berisal and the Hotel Bellevue at the summit of the Simplon Pass. Cars can be shipped through the Loetschberg and Simplon tunnels.

THE ST. GOTTHARD ROUTE (Bale-Milan Express) runs from the Lake of Lucerne southwards through beautiful mountain scenery to Lugano , Goeschenen (junction for Andermatt on the Furka-Oberalp Railway), Airolo and Bellinzona (for Locarno and Mesocco). The Car route over the Pass is open from Spring to Autumn. Cars are shipped through the tunnel at very moderate rates.

THE SWISS-ITALIAN LAKES include the Lake of Lugano and the Lago Maggiore, Locarno with Orselina and Ascona being the only resorts on the latter in Swiss territory. Lugano is a large tourist resort and the starting point of several beautiful excursions by mountain railways, steamer or car. Cademario and Sonvico lie on the heights above Lugano. Locarno, rendered famous through the Conference, is a mild climatic resort, the starting point for Lake excursions and the beautiful Centovalli Rail wa y to Domodossola and the Simplon, and for the Val Maggia Line to Bignasco. In early Spring the mimosa trees, camelias and other Southern vegetation add greatly to the charm of these Tessinese resorts.

Amongst WATERING PLACES, Ragaz , between Zurich and Coire, Tarasp-Schuls-Vulpera in the lower Engadine, Weissenburg on the M.O.B. line and Yverdon in the Jura are of the best known. The LEADING TOWNS are Basle, Berne, the Capital, Geneva, seat of the League of Nations, ‘Lausanne and Zurich. Each of these towns has an individual character and charm and is historically interesting. (For picturesque towns, see" For Sightseers ", Part I). The Railways of Switzerland are almost entirely run by electricity.

The "POSTES ALPESTRES" (public motorcar services) are most excellently organised and greatly facilitate travelling on the old diligence routes and in out of-the-way places.

The Principality of LIECHTENSTEIN, adjoining the Eastern Frontier of Switzerland, with its picturesquely situated Capital, VADUZ, is well worth visiting, either by train or car.

This post is the last of the “Holidays in The thirties” series so I’ll see if I cant find something else to build a new Monday series on. As I’m interested in just about anything I think you may see a new series next Monday –Ted

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Sweden

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT– A constitutional monarchy on a democratic basis. The legislature is the Riksdag consisting of two Houses. The first Chamber has 150 members who are elected in certain large towns by indirect election and elsewhere by County Councils for 8 years. The country is divided into 8 groups of electoral areas, Cine of which elects new members each year. The second chamber of 230 members is elected by universal suffrage of both sexes over 24. Much of the parliamentary work is done by committees consisting of members from both Houses.

 

HEAD OF STATE: King Gustav V.
Area: 448,460 km2.
Capital: Stockholm. (Population about half a million).
Currency: 1 krona = 100 öre.
Population: About 6 millions.
Density: 15 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system.

To the tourist, Sweden offers beautiful scenery, vast forests, bathing, yachting, excellent fishing and shooting. Stockholm, the "Venice of the North ", is numbered amongst the most beautiful cities of Europe.

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Norway

From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – A constitutional monarchy. The King acts through his Council of State, who are nominated by him. This Council in reality depends on the popular Assembly. The Storting (15O members) is elected every 3 years by universal suffrage of both sexes over 23 on the principle of proportional representation, The Storting elect a quarter of their number who constitute the Lagsting, the remaining three-quarters forming the Odelsting. All legislation is proposed by the Odelsting, and, if accepted, is sent to the Lagsting, which either rejects or approves. In case of repeated rejection by the Lagsting the two Houses meet in joint sitting as the Storting, where a two-thirds majority is required to pass a Bill.

HEAD OF STATE: King Haakon VII.
Area: 323,793 km2.
Capital: Oslo. Population over 250 thousand.
Currency: Kroner and øre. 1kr = 100 øre.
Language: Norwegian.
Population: 2 ½ to 3 million.
Density: 9 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal.

"TOURIST" NORWAY

Nowhere in the World can the traveller find greater restfulness (without comparative isolation) than in Norway, always provided that he avoids the tourist centres during their busy season, viz. from the middle of June to the end of August. Even then, real tranquillity can always be obtained by slightly diverging from the regular tourist track and by avoiding the Midnight Sun Mania. A sojourn at any time in one of the out-of-the-way Fjord-Resorts or Inland Hotels is perhaps the most restful and inexpensive of all holidays to be had within easy reach of England.

The unique mixture of land and water caused by the beautiful fjords penetrating in every direction into the very heart of the country, prevents much railway work, so that nearly all travelling is done by water. The regular Norwegian steamers are quieter than the large foreign boats and are very comfortable, the smaller ones being specially recommended, as they alone ‘skirt the coast through the narrow passages and smooth water, where larger vessels cannot go. This inner coast and fjord scenery is unlike that in any other country and offers a variety that never palls. During the Summer months car services connect the more important Fjord termini.

The state Railway between Oslo and Bergen penetrates some of the finest inland scenery, rising to an altitude of 4000 feet, the railway to Trondhjem stops at all places of interest, and the line through the beautiful Gudbransdal now extends beyond Domaas, rejoining the Trondhjem Line in the one direction and extending to Bjørli in the other.

In Winter, Oslo, Finse and other places on the Bergen-Oslo Railway and Gudbransdal districts are strongly recommended to those who love Winter Sports of all kinds. Skiing is of course the favorite sport in the country of its origin and can be carried on till towards the end of April.

During the Summer, fast, comfortable passenger steamers run northwards from Trondhjem through a chain of fjords and lakes to Bodø, Narvik (railway terminus), Tromsø and the North Cape. From Bodø onwards the midnight sun can be seen in all its glory during June and the first two weeks of July (longer of course in the North). Fishing and shooting is plentiful, furs can be purchased for comparatively little, and the animal life generally is interesting.

The best time for fishing is the latter half of June and the whole of July in the South, in the North also the first two weeks of August. The shooting season lasts from August 25th to March 14th with slight variations in the case of certain game.

The Summer season is June to September 15th approximately. For Climbing, July is best. The Winter season is February, March and April and extends into May in the mountains. Clothing should be light and warm with full protection against rain at all times of the year, For Motoring, Norway now offers every facility. Roads between main tourist centres are good, and those connecting up the smaller resorts have in late years undergone considerable improvement. The B. and N. Line Royal Mail Ltd. (Newcastle-on-Tyne-Bergen Route)’ make special arrangements for the conveyance of motorists visiting Norway for holiday purposes.

Further information can be obtained from the B. and N. Line Royal Mail Ltd., 25, Whitehall, London, S. W. 1.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – A constitutional monarchy, with a constitution dating back originally to 1867, but considerably amended in 1919. The sovereign power is declared to reside in the nation. Parliament consists of a single Chamber. of Deputies, whose members are elected for 6 years on the basis of proportional representation by suffrage of all men and women of over 2I. The Cabinet, consisting of a Minister, chosen by the Grand Duchess, and of three directors, acts as executive. There is also a Council of State, an advisory body of 15 members chosen for life by the Grand-Duchess: The Grand-Duchy has been declared neutral territory since 1867. In 1922 it entered into a customs union with Belgium, so that no customs barrier exists between these two countries.

HEAD OF STATE: H.R.H. the Grand-Duchess Charlotte.
Area: 2,586 km2.
Capital: Luxembourg. (Population about 55,000.)
Currency: Belgian francs and centimes.
Languages: French and German. Population: About 290,000.
Density: 112 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal system (see general table).


To the TOURIST and SPORTSMAN, the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg offers a variety of attractions and pastimes. The town of LUXEMBOURG is both picturesque and interesting, and forms an excellent starting point for many beautiful excursions in the Ardennes and" La Petite Suisse Luxembourgeoise." The country is wooded and interspersed with rocky scenery, ravines, waterfalls, picturesque old castles and quiet villages. The roads are good, hotels comfortable, and trout fishing and shooting are obtainable almost everywhere. The well known State controlled Bath Establishment of MONDORF-LES-BAINS is recommended for the efficacy of its radio-active waters.

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From the 33rd edition of “XXth Century Health And Pleasure Resorts Of Europe” published in 1933

bok_front_small_thumb[1]_thumbGOVERNMENT – The Government is a constitutional monarchy under a Statute of the Kingdom of Sardinia of 1848. Parliamentary government having met with difficulties, Signor Mussolini was asked by the King to form a Cabinet in 1922, which was given plenary power. By a change in the electoral law, providing that, if in any district a party obtained 25% of the votes, it should be granted two-thirds of the seats, the Government was able to secure stability of administration.

The Chamber of Deputies, originally modelled on the Parliaments of Great Britain and of France, met for the last time in December 19Z8. In its place, a new “corporative chamber” is set up. This was the first parliament that has been created on the syndicalist prinsiple. Thirteen great economic and productive federations or trade unions have been formed, representing employers and workers in each of six main economic groups: industry, commerce, agriculture, banking, sea and transport, land transport, as well as the professional classes. These federations propose men of approved political faith and morals for the Corporative chamber. The Fascist Grand Council, the supreme body of the Fascist regime and a new constitutional organ having advisory and deliberative powers in the political sphere, appointed by the Head of the Government, draws up a list from among their recommendations, adding names of its own should it so desire. A list of 400 thus drawn up being the whole membership of the Chamber, is presented” en bloc” for acceptance or rejection. to the whole of the electorate, consisting only of “those who, on the basis of their syndicalist contribution, show themselves to be active elements in the life of the nation, as well as the other classes which have not been considered by the law of collective labour contracts, but are useful to the nation as a whole.” The whole country is regarded as one constituency. Should this list be rejected, a new one is submitted. The Chamber is elected for 5 years. This electoral law is regarded as being only transitional stage towards a more direct form of corporative representation. The Senate consists of eminent personalities from various branches of activity appointed by the King, on the proposal of the Head of the Government.

There is now also a Council of Corporations, whose President is the head of the Government, an economic advisory organ consisting of the representatives of the Corporations.

The joint responsibility of the Government towards Parliament is replaced by that of the Head of the Government towards the Sovereign.

The Podesta, or local government officers, are appointed by the central government and are assisted by councils which include the representatives of the employers’ and workers organisations.

Head of State: King Vittorio Emanuele III.
Prime Minister: Benito Mussolini.
Area: 310,137 km2.
Capital: Rome. Population about 1,000,000.
Currency: Lire and centimes. 1 lire = 100 cts. At time of going to press, £1 = 68 lire.
Language: Italian.
Population: About 43 millions.
Density: 134 per km2.
Weights and Measures: Decimal System.


ROUGH CLASSIFICATION OF SOME OF THE RESORTS

IMPORTANT TOWNS: (both from a commercial point of view and as tourist centres) : Bologna, Como, Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, Palermo, Rome, Pisa, Turin, Venice, Verona. (From the sightseers’ point of view only): Assist, Belluno, Girgenti, Modena, Orvieto, Padua, Pavia, Perugla, Pompei, Siena, Syracuse, Taormina.

CLIMATIC AND HOLIDAY· RESORTS:
ON LAKES: Baveno, Bellagio, Cadenabbia, Cernobbio, Como, Fasano, Grandola (Golf Course above Lake Como), Lanzo d’Intelvi (above Lakes), Monte Generoso (above Lake Lugano), Orta, Pallanza, Stresa, Tremezzo, Varenna, Varese.

ON SEA: (Mediterranean Riviera): Alassio, Arenzano, Bordighera, Levanto, Nervi, Portofino-Vetta, RapaIlo, San Remo, Santa Margherita, Sestri Levante, Varazze, Viareggio. On the Adriatic: Abbazia, Brioni, the Lido, etc.

IN SOUTHERN ITALY AND SICILY: Amalfi, Capri, Girgenti, Naples, Palermo, RaveIlo, Sorrento, Syracuse, Taormina.

IN THE ALTO ADIGE AND DOLOMITE REGIONS: Carezza, Cortina, Merano, San Martino di Castrozza.

MOUNTAIN RESORTS ABOVE 3,000 ft. a.s. I: Carezza al Lago, Clavieres, Cortina, Lanzo d’Intelvl, Macugnaga, Monte Generoso, San Martino di Castrozza, Stelvio Pass.


“TOURIST” ITALY

Italy’s wealth of Art Treasures is probably unequalled in the World, and, added to her natural beauty and the charm of her people, renders the Apennine Peninsular one of the most attractive countries of Europe to all nationalities.

Somewhere or other every period of history is represented: by the ancient Greek ruins in Sicily and Southern Italy, the “history in stone” of Herculaneum and Pompei, the grand old standard buildings and ruins of Rome and the ‘wonderful palaces and relics of the Middle Ages and Renaissance period in the cities of Umbna, Tuscany and Northern Italy.

Every variety of climate, pastime and sport are to be found here, as well as hotel accommodation of every description from the “hotel de luxe” down to the most moderate pension.

Those in search of Pleasure and Society congregate of course chiefly in Rome and Florence, where operas, concerts, balls, clubs, etc., make the time pass quickly.

Sight-seeing is not confined to the great centres of Rome, Florence, Milan, Naples and Venice only, for the real lover of art and archeology penetrates into all kinds of nooks and corners, the birth-places of the great masters and the out-of-the-way towns and villages which modern architecture and hotel life have left unspoilt. Such places as Assisi, Bologna, Girgenti, Modena, Orvieto, Padua, Palermo, Pavia, Perugia, Syracuse, Verona, etc. are full of interest. .’

The lover of warmth and scenery settles down on the Italian Riviera which extends on either side of Genoa, the Riviera di Ponente including San’ Remo, Bordighera, Alassio, Arenzano, etc. and the Riviera di Levante extending past Nervi, Pi eve Ligure, Rapallo, St. Margherita, Sestri Levante, Levanto and Portofino to Viareggio. Further South he seeks the sun in Naples, AmaIfi, Ravello, Sorrento, Ischia and Capri; Sicily, with its beautiful Winter climate, its interesting and picturesque shores and ruins, attracts many visitors to such places as Palermo, Syracuse, Agrigentum, Taormina, etc. In Northern Italy, Merano combines mild climate with hilly surroundings. Abbazia on the Adriatic has an exceptionally mild climate. Brioni, off the Istrian Coast, is one of the most attractive resorts for health, pleasure and sport.

The Italian Lake District is the great intermediate rendez-vous of tourists to Italy. It includes, Varese, the Lake of Como with Como itself, Bellagio, Cadenabbia, Cernobbio, Menaggio (for Grandola Golf Course), Tremezzo, etc.; the Lago Maggiore with Bavello,’ Pallanza and Stresa, the peaceful little Lake of Orta, On the heights above the Lakes the combination of bracing air and sun attracts people to such places as Lanzo d’Intelvi, Monte Generoso, etc.

SEA BATHING can be had to perfection on the Lido (boats from Venice run every few minutes), at Viareggio with its miles of sunny sands (preferably to be visited in early and late season), also at Levanto, Sestri Levante, Santa Margherita, Rapallo, and other places on the Riviera South of Genoa. West of Genoa, Alassio, Arenzano, San Remo, Varazze and other Winter Riviera resorts have been opening for Summer bathing. On the Adriatic, Abbazia and Brioni are both very popular.

MOUNTAIN RESORTS in Northern Italy include the following: Carezza al Lago (5500 ft.) on the Dolomite Road; Clavieres (5870 ft.) in the Piedmont above Turin; Cortina (4000 ft.a.s.l.) in the heart of the Dolomites; Lanzo d’Intelvi (3000 ft.a.s.l.) above Como and Lugano; Macugnaga (4300 ft.a.s.l.) above Domodossola; Monte Generoso (5000 ft.a.s.l.) above Capolago near Lugano (on the Swiss Frontier) ; San Martino di Castrozza (4800 ft.a.sI) in the heart of the Dolomites; Santa Catarina Val Furva (5800 ft.a.s.l.); Solda (Sulden) (6350 ft.a.s.l.) just off the Northern descent of the Stelvio Pass; Trafoi (5zoo ft.a.s.l.) on the Northern descent of theStelvio Pass and the Stelvio Pass itself.

LOW RAILWAY RATES IN ITALY Railway rates in Italy are normally low, but in spite of this fact extraordinary concessions are made on circular tours, on long journeys and on return tickets, the reductions offered sometimes reaching 70 per cent. In order to avail himself of these concessions, the prospective traveller should apply for particulars to the Italian State Tourist Department (E.N.I.T.), Via Margheraz, Rome, or to its offices in the principal cities of the world.

INSURANCE POLICIES ON LUGGAGE are on sale in Italian Hotels.

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